A hernia occurs when inner layers of abdominal muscle become weakened. The lining of the abdomen then bulges out into a small sac, and part of the intestine or abdominal tissue may enter the sac. Hernias occur most commonly in the groin inguinal herniathe navel umbilical herniaand at the incision site of a previous surgery.
Read now Symptoms In many cases, a hernia is no more than a painless swelling that presents no problems and needs no immediate medical attention.
A hernia may, however, be the cause of discomfort and pain, with symptoms often becoming worse when standing, straining, or lifting heavy items. Most people who notice increasing swelling or soreness eventually see a doctor.
In some cases, a hernia needs immediate surgery, for instance, when part of the gut becomes obstructed or strangulated by an inguinal hernia.
Immediate medical attention should be sought if an inguinal hernia produces acute abdominal complaints such as: A hiatal hernia can produce symptoms of acid refluxsuch as heartburnwhich is caused by stomach acid getting into the esophagus.
Treatment For a hernia without symptoms, the usual course of action is to watch and wait, but this can be risky for certain types of hernia, such as femoral hernias. Within 2 years of a femoral hernia being diagnosed, 40 percent result in bowel strangulation.
It remains unclear whether non-emergency surgery is worthwhile for hernia repair in cases of an inguinal hernia without symptoms that can be pushed back into the abdomen.
The American College of Surgeons and some other medical bodies consider elective surgery unnecessary in such cases, recommending instead a course of watchful waiting. Others recommend surgical repair to remove the risk of later strangulation of the gut, a complication where blood supply is cut off to an area of tissue, which requires an emergency procedure.
These health authorities consider an earlier, routine operation preferable to a more risky emergency procedure. Types of surgery Belly button following hernia surgery. Although surgical options depend on individual circumstances, including the location of the hernia, there are two main types of surgical intervention for hernia: Laparoscopic repair is used for repeat operations to avoid previous scars, and while usually more expensive, is less likely to cause complications such as infection.
Surgical repair of a hernia guided by a laparoscope allows for the use of smaller incisions, enabling a faster recovery from the operation.
The hernia is repaired in the same way as in open surgery, but it is guided by a small camera and a light introduced through a tube. Surgical instruments are inserted through another small incision. The abdomen is inflated with gas to help the surgeon see better and give them space to work; the whole operation is performed under general anesthetic.
Hernia in children Inguinal hernia is one of the most common surgical conditions in infants and children. A systematic review of 20 years of data on conventional open hernia repair herniorrhaphy and laparoscopic hernia repair herniorrhaphy in infants and children found that laparoscopic surgery is faster than open surgery for bilateral hernias, but that there is no significant difference in operating time for unilateral inguinal hernia repair.
The rate of recurrence is similar for both types of procedure, but complications, such as wound infection, are more likely with open surgery, especially in infants.Comprehensive and thorough diagnosis of thyroid cancer involves a number of procedures and tests.
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Hernias occur when a weakness in the muscular wall of the abdomen allows organs and tissues to push through. Hernias usually occur in the groin, stomach, or belly button. Some people are born with. It remains to be established whether bariatric surgery is a durable and effective treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and how bariatric surgery compares with intensive lifestyle modification and medication management with respect to T2DM-related outcomes. Surgery (from the Greek: χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via Latin: chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair.
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Information about hernia repair surgery.