This would explain why people of that time did not follow the common practice of cremation, but rather buried the dead. Some also believe they may have feared the bodies would rise again if mistreated after death. Sometimes multiple people and animals were placed in the same grave. Over time, graves became more complex, with the body placed in a wicker basket, then later in wooden or terracotta coffins.
Egyptian Mummification Egyptian Mummification Egyptian embalmers were so skilled that people mummified four thousand years ago still have skin, hair and recognizable features such as scars and tattoos. The word mummy comes from the Arabic mummiya, meaning bitumen or coal and every Egyptian, except the most abject criminal, was entitled to be embalmed and receive a decent burial.
The body was taken to the embalmers by the relatives, who then chose the method and quality of mummification. The best and most expensive methods were used on the wealthy, but there were cheaper alternatives for the poor.
The Greek historian Herodotus, who lived in the fifth century BC, described the different methods The Most Costly Draw out the brain through the nostrils Take out the whole contents of the belly, and clean the interior with palm-wine and spices. Fill the belly with pure myrrh, cassia and other spices and sew it together again.
Cover up in natron for seventy days. Wash the corpse and roll it up in fine linen. Less Costly Fill the belly with oil of cedar-wood using a syringe by the breech, which is plugged to stop the drench from returning back; it dissolves the bowels and interior organs.
After the appointed number of days with the natron treatment the cedar oil is let out and the corpse is left as skin and the bones. Returned the corpse the family.
For the Poor Cleanse out the belly with a purge.
Keep the body for seventy days of natron treatment. Return the corpse to the family. Canopic Jars Canopic Jars Except for the heart, which was needed by the deceased in the Hall of Judgment, the embalmers removed all of the internal organs from the body.
These were placed into four vases, called Canopic Jars. The lids formed the shape of the Four Sons of Horus. The liver was associated with Imset who was depicted with a human head. The stomach was associated with Duamutef with the head of a jackal.
The intestines and viscera of the lower body was associated with the falcon headed Kebechsenef. Natron Natron is a naturally occurring white, crystalline mineral salt which absorbs water from its surroundings. It was mined from dry lake beds and used in the mummification process to soak up water from the body.
After seventy days in natron the dried out and shriveled body was washed and rubbed with oil and fragrant spices. The inside was packed with cloth before being wrapped in linen.
The face was painted to make it look lifelike and the hair neatly arranged. The chief embalmer, dressed as Anubis god of embalmingwould bless the diseased and priests said prayers to help the dead person on his way into the next world.
Finally, the body was wrapped in linen bandages which were soaked in resin and magical amulets were placed within the bandages as symbols of power, protection, and rebirth.
The body was then returned to the relatives who placed it in a wooden coffin. Coffins and Sarcophagi A coffin is the rectangular or anthropoid human shaped container that held the mummified body.
The sarcophagus was the stone or wooden outer container which held the coffin or coffins.Mummification in Ancient Egypt In ancient Egypt, mummification was considered integral to one's afterlife. The mummified body provided a place for a person's ba, or spirit, to return to the body after death.
This Lecture by Egyptologist Robert Brier, known as “Mr. Mummy,” one of the world’s foremost experts on mummies. Brier is the first person in 2, years to mummify a human cadaver using the exact techniques of the ancient Egyptians.
Mummies in Ancient Egypt and the Process of Mummification Ancient Egyptians For more information on Egyptian mummies and other often counter-intuitive facts of ancient and medieval history, see Anthony Esolen’s The Politically Incorrect Guide to Western Civilization.
Mummification The earliest ancient Egyptians buried their dead in small pits in the desert. The heat and dryness of the sand dehydrated the bodies quickly, creating lifelike and natural 'mummies'. Later, the ancient Egyptians began burying their dead in coffins to protect them from wild animals in the desert.
Mummification is one of the defining customs in ancient Egyptian society for people today. The practice of preserving the human body is believed to be a quintessential feature of Egyptian life.
Yet even mummification has a history of development and was accessible to different ranks of society in different ways during different periods.
What is Mummification - grupobittia.com