Lecture 8 Greek Thought: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle The political and social upheaval caused by the Persian Wars as well as continued strife between Athens and Sparta see Lecture 7 had at least one unintended consequence. In the 5th century, a flood of new ideas poured into Athens. In general, these new ideas came as a result of an influx of Ionian thinkers into the Attic peninsula.
For any plurality of F things, there is a form of F-ness by virtue of partaking of which each member of that plurality is F. Every form of F-ness is itself F. No form partakes of itself. For any property F, there is exactly one form of F-ness. No form can have contrary properties. The property of being one and the property of being many are contraries.
Every form is one. The argument[ edit ] However, the TMA shows that these principles are mutually contradictory, as long as there is a plurality of things that are F: Begin, then, with the assumption that there is a plurality of great things, say A, B, C. By one-over-many, there is a form of greatness say, G1 by virtue of partaking of which A, B, and C are great.
By self-predication, G1 is great. But then we can add G1 to A, B, C to form a new plurality of great things: A, B, C, G1. By one-over-many, there is a form of greatness say, G2 by virtue of partaking of which A, B, C, and G1 are great.
So there are at least two forms of greatness, G1 and G2. This already contradicts Uniqueness, according to which there is exactly one and hence no more than one form of greatness.
But it gets worse for the theory of Forms. A, B, C, G1, G2.
So there must be at least three forms of greatness, G1, G2, and G3. Repetition of this reasoning shows that there is an infinite hierarchy of forms of greatness, with each form partaking of the infinite number of forms above it in the hierarchy.
According to Plato, anything that partakes of many things must itself be many. So each form in the infinite hierarchy of forms of greatness is many.
Interpretation[ edit ] Some scholars including Gregory Vlastos believe that the TMA is a "record of honest perplexity". Other scholars think that Plato means us to reject one of the premises that produces the infinite regress namely, One-Over-Many, Self-Predication, or Non-Self-Partaking.It was one of the rules which, above all others, made Doctor Franklin the most amiable of men in society, "never to contradict anybody." If he was urged to announce an opinion, he did it rather by asking questions, as if for information, or by suggesting doubts.
The trial and death of Socrates ( BCE) have almost as central a place in Western consciousness as the trial and death of Jesus. In four superb dialogues, Plato provides the classic account. Crito is forced to admit that Socrates has presented a strong argument with reference to the inadvisability of following public opinion, or even the voice of the majority, when it comes to matters of crucial importance.
On a more ethical level, Crito presents two more pressing arguments: first, if he stayed, he would be aiding his enemies in wronging him unjustly, and would thus be acting unjustly himself; and second, that he would be abandoning his .
Summary. The Crito records the conversation that took place in the prison where Socrates was confined awaiting his grupobittia.com is in the form of a dialog between Socrates and Crito, an elderly Athenian who for many years has been a devoted friend of Socrates and a firm believer in his ethical teachings.
Lecture 8 Greek Thought: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle: The political and social upheaval caused by the Persian Wars as well as continued strife between Athens and Sparta (see Lecture 7) had at least one unintended grupobittia.com the 5 th century, a flood of new ideas poured into Athens.
In general, these new ideas came as a result of an influx of Ionian thinkers into the Attic peninsula.