Lawrence THE HANDLE, which varies in length according to the height of its user, and in some cases is made by that user to his or her specifications, is like most of the other parts of the tool in that it has a name and thus a character of its own. I call it the snath, as do most of us in the UK, though variations include the snathe, the snaithe, the snead, and the sned.
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October Learn how and when to remove this template message Typically for any theory to be accepted within most academia there is one simple criterion. The essential criterion is that the theory must be observable and repeatable. The aforementioned criterion is essential to prevent fraud and perpetuate science itself.
The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. Plate tectonic theory successfully explains numerous observations about the Earth, including the distribution of earthquakes, mountains, continents, and oceans. The defining characteristic of all scientific knowledge, including theories, is the ability to make falsifiable or testable predictions.
The relevance and specificity of those predictions determine how potentially useful the theory is. A would-be theory that makes no observable predictions is not a scientific theory at all.
Predictions not sufficiently specific to be tested are similarly not useful. In both cases, the term "theory" is not applicable. A body of descriptions of knowledge can be called a theory if it fulfills the following criteria: It makes falsifiable predictions with consistent accuracy across a broad area of scientific inquiry such as mechanics.
It is well-supported by many independent strands of evidence, rather than a single foundation. It is consistent with preexisting experimental results and at least as accurate in its predictions as are any preexisting theories.
Other criteria[ edit ] In addition, scientists prefer to work with a theory that meets the following qualities: It can be subjected to minor adaptations to account for new data that do not fit it perfectly, as they are discovered, thus increasing its predictive capability over time.
This is because for each accepted explanation of a phenomenon, there may be an extremely large, perhaps even incomprehensible, number of possible and more complex alternatives, because one can always burden failing explanations with ad hoc hypotheses to prevent them from being falsified; therefore, simpler theories are preferable to more complex ones because they are more testable.
The formal scientific definition of theory is quite different from the everyday meaning of the word. It refers to a comprehensive explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a vast body of evidence.
Many scientific theories are so well established that no new evidence is likely to alter them substantially. For example, no new evidence will demonstrate that the Earth does not orbit around the sun heliocentric theoryor that living things are not made of cells cell theorythat matter is not composed of atoms, or that the surface of the Earth is not divided into solid plates that have moved over geological timescales the theory of plate tectonics One of the most useful properties of scientific theories is that they can be used to make predictions about natural events or phenomena that have not yet been observed.
A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment. Such fact-supported theories are not "guesses" but reliable accounts of the real world.
The theory of biological evolution is more than "just a theory". It is as factual an explanation of the universe as the atomic theory of matter or the germ theory of disease.
Our understanding of gravity is still a work in progress. But the phenomenon of gravity, like evolution, is an accepted fact. Note that the term theory would not be appropriate for describing untested but intricate hypotheses or even scientific models.
The first observation of cellsby Robert Hookeusing an early microscope. The scientific method involves the proposal and testing of hypothesesby deriving predictions from the hypotheses about the results of future experiments, then performing those experiments to see whether the predictions are valid.
This provides evidence either for or against the hypothesis. When enough experimental results have been gathered in a particular area of inquiry, scientists may propose an explanatory framework that accounts for as many of these as possible.
This explanation is also tested, and if it fulfills the necessary criteria see abovethen the explanation becomes a theory. This can take many years, as it can be difficult or complicated to gather sufficient evidence. Once all of the criteria have been met, it will be widely accepted by scientists see scientific consensus as the best available explanation of at least some phenomena.
It will have made predictions of phenomena that previous theories could not explain or could not predict accurately, and it will have resisted attempts at falsification. The strength of the evidence is evaluated by the scientific community, and the most important experiments will have been replicated by multiple independent groups.
Theories do not have to be perfectly accurate to be scientifically useful. For example, the predictions made by classical mechanics are known to be inaccurate in the relatistivic realm, but they are almost exactly correct at the comparatively low velocities of common human experience.
For example, certain tests may be unfeasible or technically difficult. As a result, theories may make predictions that have not yet been confirmed or proven incorrect; in this case, the predicted results may be described informally with the term "theoretical".The IB Extended Essay (or EE) is a 4, word structured mini-thesis that you write under the supervision of an advisor (an IB teacher at your school), which counts towards your IB Diploma (to learn about all of the IB diploma requirements, check out our other article).
Mar 13, · An extended essay in chemistry provides students with an opportunity to investigate a particular aspect of the materials of our environment. Such extended essays must be characterized by a particular chemical emphasis within a more general set of research criteria.
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Extended Essay Guidance and Marksheet ( Criteria) General Assessment Criteria Criteria purpose of the essay is specified 1 2 SUBJECT SPECIFIC GUIDELINES The research question must focus on the human past and not be of a trivial nature.
The research question is stated in the introduction but is not clearly expressed or is too broad in The. An extended essay in chemistry provides students with an opportunity to investigate a particular aspect of the materials of our environment. Such extended essays must be characterized by a particular chemical emphasis within a more general set of research criteria.
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