Use an editor to spell check essay. In discussing the role of religion in African and other non-Western societies, it is important to recognize that the conception of religion as having a distinct 'role' derives from Europe's secularizing experience of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. Prior to that time, Christian doctrine permeated European scholarship to an extent that made impossible the discrete identification of one or several 'roles' for religion in European society. With the rise of humanism, European scholars began to see religion as a human institution amenable to critical study on a level with other human institutions, such as literature, philosophy and history.
The Rationalization of Sayyid Qutb: Stabilizing Religious Identities in Modernity Sayyid Qutb was introduced to me as a prominent thinker in the discourse on modern Muslim identity. Reading his work, the secondary literature, and getting to know his reputation in the West, I was presented with an individual who had an extraordinarily challenging life experience, who was modest and collected, and was posited as the link between Islam and groups like Al Qaeda.
Al Qaeda and its sister organizations are not merely popular, wealthy, global, well connected and institutionally sophisticated.
I began to see a gap between Qutb, the proto-terrorist, and Qutb, the human being. In separating Qutb from the Qutb Narrative, his location in a wide theoretical framework for modernity was largely unaddressed. Qutb becomes a dynamic individual faced with the challenge of maintaining a religious identity in a disenchanted world.
To do this, I begin the essay with a reevaluation of the Qutb Narrative. Rather than focusing on his radical and most well known texts, I treat Social Justice in Islam, his first Islamist text, as the bridge between his intellectualism and his activism.
Thus, the text becomes one that contains less assertions of a value-oriented identity, and concentrated on formulating a viable alternative to a Westernized system. Qutb cannot be reduced to a title, text, or idea. Instead, his experience in modernity is unique and incredibly human.
This essay tries to unrationalize or unlearn the Qutb Narrative in order to obtain a clearer understanding of Qutb and his contribution to Islamism. The Qutb Narrative Reevaluated The Qutb Narrative incorporates the elements discussed in this paper to a degree, however my contention is that it misses subtle consistencies and major elements which are much more useful in placing Qutb and his Islamist contributions in the modern context.
In order to get at these subtler contextual elements, which produce Qutb the Islamist, the Qutb Narrative must consider his intellectual development within the historical and theoretical context of modernity.
Indeed, Qutb learns this violence from the West and the Nasser regime. These periods are clear markers in the Qutb Narrative, yet without a solid theoretical understanding, the Narrative misses subtler, more explanatory details. These irrational characteristics i.
Al-Aqqad plays a vital role in turning Qutb on to Egyptian political life and modernism. In the West, romanticism was a way of finding meaning outside the overwhelming urban and industrial centers—a way to oppose modernity—and yet, in Egypt, it served as a way to break with tradition and explore, at least literarily, new forms of expression.
For Qutb, the romanticism Al-Aqqad drew from Europe provided an ideology for negotiating modernity.
Qutb is not yet anti-modern; in fact, Qutb saw traditionalism as inept in regards to adapting to the challenges of modernity Abu-Rubic This ineptitude is a chip Qutb carries on his shoulder throughout his gradual switch to Islamism.
At this early point in his career, however, we see this need to reinterpret tradition in a modernist sense—a position that Qutb dresses in an Islamic priority later in his career.
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After the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of and the resulting political and economic disappointments, Qutb, like al-Banna becomes disillusioned with Islamic modernism. In many ways, Qutb stands on the shoulder of al-Banna, internalizing the way al-Banna responds to modernity in Egypt by addressing three main areas of Egyptian life: At its core, this triad of needs forms the Islamist call for more and better Islam.
Indeed, Qutb found a great deal of common ground with al-Banna. In sum, the language and ideology Qutb developed is one that is romantic and mystic from the outset.The Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism provides a comprehensive and detailed examination into Islam as a religion, Islam as a government, and Islam as a way of life.
It is a thorough analysis of various groups, events, movements, key figures, and dogmas that have influenced contemporary Islamic Fundamentalism.
Islamic Fundamentalism Contest Introduction I. Islam as a Religion grupobittia.comc Fundamentalism Defining Fundamentalism and the Backgrounds of Islamic Fundamentalism Islamic fundamentalist movements Conclusion Bibliography Introduction Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world and is second only to .
20 March Introduction On September 11, , the United States of America experienced the worst act of terrorism ever perpetrated on American soil, as major targets in New York, Washington DC, and Pennsylvania were the scenes of the massive slaughter of innocent civilians.
Islamic Fundamentalism Research Papers Islamic Fundamentalism research papers provide an exploration of the motivations behind militant Islamic fundamentalism.
Paper Masters suggests that some background information from scholarly works must be consulted in order to put the movement into historical context. The Islamic Declaration by Alija Izetbegović (–) published in , is an essay on Islam and modernization. In , 13 Muslim intellectuals were sentenced to prison on charges of Islamic fundamentalism.
WHAT IS FUNDAMENTALISM: The first step in an attempt to understand fundamentalism in Islam is to get a sense of what fundamentalism is.
Simply put, fundamentalism is the basis, the root, the core, the essential, and the spirit of any concept, idea, philosophy, myth, belief, hypothesis or discipline.