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Subject Index preface Over the last two decades there has been a dramatic change in the chemical process industries.
Industrial processes are now highly integrated with respect to energy and material flows, constrained ever more tightly by high quality product specifications, and subject to increasingly strict safety and environmental emission Ojt accomplishe report.
These more stringent operating conditions often place new constraints on the operating flexibility of the process. All of these factors produce large economic incentives for reliable, high performance control systems in modem industrial plants.
Fortunately, these more Ojt accomplishe report process control problems arise just at the time when inexpensive real time digital computers are available for implementing more sophisticated control strategies.
Most new plants in the chemical, petroleum, paper, steel, and related industries are designed and built with a network of mini- and microcomputers in place to carry out data acquisition and process control.
These usually take the form of commercially available distributed control systems. Because of these significant changes in the nature of process control technology, the undergraduate chemical engineer requires an up-to-date textbook which provides a modem view of process control engineering in the context of this current technology.
This book is directed toward this need and is designed to be used in the first undergraduate courses in process dynamics and control. Although the most important material can be covered in one semester, the scope of material is appropriate for a two-semester course sequence as welL Most of the examples are taken from the chemical process industry; however, the text would also be suitable for such courses taught in mechanical, nuclear, industrial, and metallurgical engineering departments.
Bearing in mind the limited mathematical background of many undergraduate engineers, all of the necessary mathematical tools are reviewed in the text itself. Furthermore, the material is organized so that modem concepts are presented to the student but the details of the most advanced material are left to later chapters.
In this xviii PREFACE way, those prefering a lighter treatment of the subject may easily select coherent, self-consistent material, while those wishing to present a deeper, more comprehensive coverage, may go further into each topic. By providing this structure, we hope to provide a text which is easy to use by the occasional teacher of process control courses as well as a book which is considered respectable by the professor whose research specialty is process control.
The text material has been developed, refined, and classroom tested by the authors over many years at the University of Wisconsin and more recently at the University of Delaware.
As part of the course at Wisconsin, a laboratory has been developed to allow the students hands-on experience with measurement instruments, real-time computers, and experimental process dynamics and control problems. The text is designed to provide the theoretical background for courses having such a laboratory.
Most of the experiments in the Wisconsin laboratory appear as examples somewhere in the book. Review questions and extensive problems drawn from many areas of application are provided throughout the book so that students may test their comprehension of the material.
The book is organized into six parts. In Part I Chaptersintroductory material giving perspective and motivation is provided. It begins with a discussion of the importance of process control in the process industries, with simple examples to illustrate the basic concepts.
The principal elements of a modem process control scheme are discussed and illustrated with practical process examples. Next, a rudimentary description of control system hardware is provided so that the reader -can visualize how control schemes are implemented.
This begins with a discussion of basic measurement and computer data acquisition methodology. Then the fundamentals of digital computers and interfacing technology are presented in order to introduce the basic concepts to the reader.
Finally, control actuators such as pumps, valves, heaters, etc. The purpose of the chapter is to provide some practical perspective, before beginning the more theoretical material which follows.
Part II Chapters analyzes and characterizes the various types of dynamic behavior expected from a process and begins by providing an introduction to the basic mathematical and analysis tools necessary for the engineering material to be studied.
This is followed by a discussion of various representations and approaches in the formulation of dynamic models. The emphasis is on learning how to select the model formulation most appropriate for the problem at hand.
The essential features of state-space, transformdomain, frequency-response, and impulse-response models are presented and compared. Then comes a discussion of the fundamental dynamic response of various model types.
Processes with time delays, inverse response, and nonlinearities are among the classes considered in some detail. The fundamentals of process stability analysis are then introduced and applied to the models under discussion.
Methods for constructing process models and determining parameters for the model from experimental data are discussed in Part Ill Chapters Both theoretical and empirical models are discussed and contrasted.
Complementing the usual material on step, pulse, or frequency response identification methods, is a treatment of parameter estimation for models represented by difference and differential equations. Sufficient examples are provided to allow the student to see how each method works in practice.
Part IVA Chapters deals with single loop control systems and introduces the basic principles of controller structure e. The choice of controller type is discussed for processes having the various types of process dynamics described in Part II.Summary of WBR as of November 16, views.
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