For an essay giving background on the contest, click here. The Bad Writing Contest celebrates the most stylistically lamentable passages found in scholarly books and articles published in the last few years. Ordinary journalism, fiction, departmental memos, etc. Deliberate parody cannot be allowed in a field where unintended self-parody is so widespread.
Works in the dark romantic spirit were influenced by Transcendentalism, but did not entirely embrace the ideas of Transcendentalism. Such works are notably less optimistic than Transcendental texts about mankind, nature, and divinity.
Transcendentalism originated in New England among intellectuals like Ralph Waldo EmersonHenry David Thoreauand Margaret Fuller and found wide popularity from through the late s. Firstly, Dark Romantics are much less confident about the notion perfection is an innate quality of mankind, as believed by Transcendentalists.
Subsequently, Dark Romantics present individuals as prone to sin and self-destruction, not as inherently possessing divinity and wisdom.
Thompson describes this disagreement, stating while Transcendental thought conceived Prose writing in romanticism a world in which divinity was immanent, "the Dark Romantics adapted images of anthropomorphized evil in the form of Satandevilsghosts … vampiresand ghouls.
For these Dark Romantics, the natural world is dark, decaying, and mysterious; when it does reveal truth to man, its revelations are evil and hellish.
Finally, whereas Transcendentalists advocate social reform when appropriate, works of Dark Romanticism frequently show individuals failing in their attempts to make changes for the better. Thompson sums up the characteristics of the subgenre, writing: Still, the genre came to influence later Dark Romantic works, particularly some of those produced by Poe.
Their tales and poems commonly feature outcasts from society, personal torment, and uncertainty as to whether the nature of man will bring him salvation or destruction.
Many of his works are generally considered part of the genre. As Melville matured he began to use the fictional form to probe metaphysical and psychological questions, culminating in his masterpiece, Moby-Dick.
This long, thematically innovative novel had no precedent and can fairly be said to stand alone in its trenchant use of symbols and archetypes. According to his friend Nathaniel Hawthorne, Melville "can neither believe nor be comfortable in his unbelief.
Nathaniel Hawthorne is the dark romantic writer with the closest ties to the American Transcendental movement. He was associated with the community in New England and even lived at the Brook Farm Transcendentalist Utopian commune for a time before he became troubled by the movement; his literature later became anti-transcendental in nature.
For Melville, religious doubt was an unspoken subtext to much of his fiction, while Hawthorne brooded over the Puritan experience in his novels and short stories. The direct descendant of John Hawthorne, a presiding judge at the Salem witch trials inHawthorne struggled to come to terms with Puritanism within his own sensibility and as the nation expanded geographically and intellectually.
Prominent examples Elements contained within the following literary works by Dark Romantic authors make each representative of the subgenre: While Transcendentalism focused on the individual, eschewing reason for spiritual intuition and asserting that God already exists in the individual, the Dark romantics took a somewhat dimmer view of the essential goodness of human nature.
They focused on the dark side of the soul, the reality of evil and sin in the human heart, undercutting the optimistic worldview of the Transcendentalists. The legacy of the Dark romantics can be found in a variety of media.
From early in its inception, the film industry created the vampire and horror film genres in such works as Nosferatu and "The Cabinet of Dr.
These have spawned an entire genre. Another genre that was deeply influenced by Dark romanticism was the graphic novelsoriginating with the Batman comics in the s.
Thompson Gale, Reynolds, Beneath the American Renaissance: Harvard University Press, Romanticism and the Gothic Tradition. Essays in Dark Romanticism. Washington State University Press,6. Washington State University Press,5. Retrieved February 19, Gale Research Company, Facts on File, Inc.
References Galens, David, ed. Literary Movements for Students. Poe, Death, and the Life of Writing. Yale University Press, The Power of Blackness: Ohio University Press, Nineteenth Century Literature Criticism Vols. Beneath the American Renaissance: Cambridge University Press, Romantic Prose Fiction (review) John Boening The Comparatist, Volume 33, May , pp.
(Review) and the relation of Romantic prose writing to historical narrative and social discourse, among other topics.
The vol-ume closes with a section on the afterlives of Romanticism entitled “Contributions of Romanticism to 19th and 20th. In the most basic sense, Romanticism, which is loosely identified as spanning the years of , 1 2 can be distinguished from the preceding period called the Enlightenment by observing that the one elevated the role of spirit, soul, instinct, and emotion, while the other advocated a cool, detached scientific approach to most human endeavors and dilemmas.
3 In short, Romanticism . Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from to Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification .
Review from previous edition: "Duff provides illuminating evidence for the view that the Romantic period was acutely genre-conscious this is a richly detailed and admirably researched book that will prove invaluable to all students of Romanticism". Romantic prose exists in novels, short stories and essays written during the Romantic period, specifically in England.
The Romantic period lasted from about to This webpage is for Dr. Wheeler's literature students, and it offers introductory survey information concerning the literature of classical China, classical Rome, classical Greece, the Bible as Literature, medieval literature, Renaissance literature, and genre studies.