Both ruling in the first century of the Common Era, the Han dynasty peaking in the s and the Roman Empire in the s, these empires showed great military power, strived in economic trade, and their territories covered vast land. So how did these great empires find themselves plummeting to an unfortunate collapse?
With the extraordinary growth of the academic discipline of history in the 19th century, the history of the Middle Ages was absorbed into academic curricula of history in Europe and the United States and established in university survey courses and research seminars.
Journals of… History of historiography All human cultures tell stories about the past. Deeds of ancestors, heroes, gods, or animals sacred to particular peoples were chanted and memorized long before there was any writing with which to record them.
Their truth was authenticated by the very fact of their continued repetition. History, which may be defined as an account that purports to be true of events and ways of thinking and feeling in some part of the human past, stems from this archetypal human narrative activity.
While sharing a common ancestry with mythlegendepic poetryand the novelhistory has of course diverged from these forms.
Its claim to truth is based in part on the fact that all the persons or events it describes really existed or occurred at some time in the past.
Historians can say nothing about these persons or events that cannot be supported, or at least suggested, by some kind of documentary evidence. Such evidence customarily takes the form of something written, such as a letter, a law, an administrative record, or the account of some previous historian.
In addition, historians sometimes create their own evidence by interviewing people. In the 20th century the scope of historical evidence was greatly expanded to include, among many other things, aerial photographs, the rings of trees, old coins, clothes, motion pictures, and houses.
Modern historians have determined the age of the Shroud of Turinwhich purportedly bears the image of Jesusthrough carbon dating and have discredited the claim of Anna Anderson to be the grand duchess Anastasiathe daughter of Tsar Nicholas IIthrough DNA testing Just as the methods at the disposal of historians have expanded, so have the subjects in they have become interested.
Many of the indigenous peoples of Africa, the Americas, and Polynesia, for example, were long dismissed by Europeans as having no precolonial history, because they did not keep written records before the arrival of European explorers. However, sophisticated study of oral traditions, combined with advances in archaeologyhas made it possible to discover a good deal about the civilizations and empires that flourished in these regions before European contact.
Historians have also studied new social classes.
The earliest histories were mostly stories of disasters—floods, famines, and plagues—or of wars, including the statesmen and generals who figured in them. In the 20th century, however, historians shifted their focus from statesmen and generals to ordinary workers and soldiers.
Until relatively recent times, however, most men and virtually all women were excluded from history because they were unable to write. Virtually all that was known about them passed through the filter of the attitudes of literate elites. The challenge of seeing through that filter has been met by historians in various ways.
One way is to make use of nontraditional sources—for example, personal documents, such as wills or marriage contracts.
Another is to look at the records of localities rather than of central governments. Through these means even the most oppressed peoples—African-American slaves or medieval hereticsfor example—have had at least some of their history restored.
Since the 20th century some historians have also become interested in psychological repression—i. For the first time, the claim of historians to deal with the feelings as well as the thoughts of people in any part of the human past has been made good.
None of this is to say that history writing has assumed a perfect or completed form. It will never do so: Nevertheless, 21st-century historians understand the pasts of more people more completely and more accurately than their predecessors did. This article demonstrates the scope of that accomplishment and how it came to be achieved.
Ancient historiography The first histories In the beginning was the spoken word. Humans lived for tens of thousands of years with languageand thus with tales about the past, but without writing.
Oral history is still important in all parts of the world, and successful transmission of stories over many generations suggests that people without writing can have a sophisticated historical sense.
The historical record, however, must start with a system of writing and a suitable writing technology. The earliest forms of writing included cuneiform and pictographswhich were inscribed on stone and clay tablets in Egypt and Mesopotamiaas well as Chinese ideograms, which were incised in bronze and on oracle bones baked oxen bones whose cracks and fissures were thought to foretell the future.
People in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and China were the first to make records of their contemporaries, which took the form of lists of kings and ancestors.
Egypt and Mesopotamia In Egypt, the first lists date from about the middle of the 3rd millennium bce and extend back another 1, years to a time when kings were thought to mingle with gods. Entries were made year by year, making these lists among the earliest annals.Compare and Contrast the Roman Empire and the Han Dynasty - Differences Between the Italian an Northern Renaissance Compare and Contrast Essay of Rome and Han China.
is as usual the place to go to get quantitative analysis of the primaries. They project Trump as getting 85 of the 91 delegates in New York, and still coming up about eighty delegates short of locking in a victory before the convention.
Compare and Contrast Han China and Rome Essay Sample. Empires on their outside may seem very different and unique. However, when you get down to their fundamentals, you . While eunuchs were employed in all Chinese dynasties, their number decreased significantly under the Qing, and the tasks they performed were largely replaced by the Imperial Household Department.
At the beginning of the 20th century, there were about 2, eunuchs working in the Forbidden City. Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝) emerged as a principal power in East Asia in BCE after the fall of the Qin Dynasty in BCE. They pioneered a political system and social structure in China that lasted for almost 2, years.
They rapidly advanced Chinese technology, and created the cultural and political . Cultural Disparities in Ancient China - In the three and a half centuries between the end of the Han dynasty and the beginning of the Sui dynasty, China once again found itself in a period of disunity.