She was married to Jewish stockbroker Valdemar Isidor Salomonsen, but had been estranged from him for several months at the time Erik was conceived. Little is known about Erik's biological father except that he was a non-Jewish Dane. On discovering her pregnancy, Karla fled to Frankfurt am Main in Germany where Erik was born on 15 June and was given the surname Salomonsen.
March 26, From a very early point in the history of philosophy, philosophers have been asking questions about human nature and about how we develop. These questions have led to a range of theories about human development and have extended from the philosophical sphere into the realms of psychology and educational research.
Along with this expansion into other areas of studies, the questions being asked are also changing.
Earlier educational and psychological theories, for example, focused largely on behaviorism as the source of human development while recent theories have increasingly been integrating the role Skinner vs bandura cognition in the development process.
Despite being only theories with flaws and without definite answers, these theories are very valuable to educators. There are three main categories of thought distinguishing these educational theories: While there is variation in the ideas of theorists within each group, there are a few generalizations that can be made about each.
The following paragraphs will give some very basic background into each theory to help illustrate the differences between them. These theories are primarily based on cognitive processes and rarely, if ever, include introspective processes.
For many environmental theorists, the idea of free will is an illusion.
Behavior is fully conditioned and determined by outside forces including genetic factors or environmental inputs. Unlike other species, humans are not born with instinctive survival skills, yet we are the most developed species on Earth, having constantly adapted the environment to suit our needs.
As humans, we are constantly learning from each other and always building on what we know. For example, parents raising children today have much more information about how to prepare for the moments before childbirth.
Doctors are better prepared to conduct the delivery of a child and ensure that both the mother and child survive the process. With such a view, can we really say that all of our learning is structured, intentional and pre-determined as would be the perspective of environmentalism?
Similarly, can we fully remove the effect of the environment-imagine someone unable to afford a decent hospital in a developing country-on our development and focus on cognitive processes?
Albert Bandura felt that neither approach was entirely satisfactory. From the point of view of behaviorism, all that we know is a series of conditioned responses.
This view, while it did help explain some behaviors, was very narrow and mechanical and would not explain why we have such advanced cognitive abilities and how we have progressed so far. To deal with these shortcomings, Bandura expanded the work of development theories to include ideas from cognitive theories.
He also wrote of how we learn to make the best of chance encounters-an subject in psychology he felt was particularly lacking. Bandura was the youngest of six children and grew up in a small town in Canada. His elementary school and high school years were spent at the only school in this small town where, because of scarce resources, students often worked based on their own initiative.
He happened onto psychology by chance when he was attending the University of British Columbia and needed an early class to complete his schedule. His initial theories were based on his observations of adolescents coming from families where the parents also displayed aggressive behavior.
His experiment involved the placement of a blow-up doll in a room of toys and exposing three separate groups of preschool children to different behaviors in the playroom. One group saw an adult being aggressive towards the doll, hitting it with wooden mallets and other objects and using aggressive language towards it.
A second group saw an adult come in and play constructively with other toys in the room and display no violent behavior. A third group had no adult modeled behavior in the playroom. Later placed in the room with the blow-up doll, the children who saw the aggressive behavior were the most aggressive of the three groups and the children who saw the adult engaged in constructive, non-aggressive behavior were the least aggressive of the groups.
What this illustrated for Bandura was the importance of modeling in social cognitive theory. In one of his earlier articles, Bandura acknowledges that some behaviors are indeed the result of direct training or conditioning of some form.
He feels that certain things, personality patterns for example, come from modeled behavior, usually the behavior of the parents. He gives the example of a parent hitting a child as punishment for things like bullying or fighting with peers. The purpose of the punishment is to decrease the aggressive behavior, but in fact, the act is teaching the child other forms of aggression to imitate.
This form of modeling is not restricted to parents, however. Bandura repeated the blow-up doll experiment to have children watching videos, some with human models and some with cartoon characters, with videos portraying similar behavior to the earlier mentioned example.
Bandura had other groups this time; some videos were extended to let children see the aggressor being punished as a consequence of bad behavior. Bandura observed the same pattern of behavior was displayed by viewers who did not see the extended videos, but observed a decrease in the undesirable behavior by children who saw the consequences of the action.
This reinforced the idea that we can learn how to act based on our observations alone and that the subjects we observe do not have to be live models but can be abstractions of reality. In fact, in a more recent study, Bandura wrote:Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines such as Cognitive Science and of psychological study, including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology. Learning theories and models summaries explained & easy to understand.
Useful for students and teachers in educational psychology, instructional design, digital media and learning. Research and explain how current practice is influenced by Theories of development.
Research and explain how current practice is influenced by Theories of development include; Piaget – Intellectual, Freud – psychoanalytic, Maslow – Humanist, Bandura – Social Learning, Skinner – Operant Conditioning, Watson – Behaviourist.
Also explain how you holistically use these theories to work. The term self-concept is a general term used to refer to how someone thinks about, evaluates or perceives themselves.
To be aware of oneself is to have a concept of oneself. Research and explain how current practice is influenced by Theories of development. Research and explain how current practice is influenced by Theories of development include; Piaget – Intellectual, Freud – psychoanalytic, Maslow – Humanist, Bandura – Social Learning, Skinner – Operant Conditioning, Watson – Behaviourist.
Also explain how you holistically use these theories to work. Start studying Praxis PLT Grades: Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.